Veterinary medicine is the application of medical techniques to animals that may be domestic,companion,exotic,wild or production animals as well as birds.Veterinary science is vital to the study and protection of animal production practices,herd health and monitoring the spread of disease.However,the basic principles of study and treatment is quite similar to that of human medical sciences.The activities of a vet may also include Animal husbandry-animal breed improvement by ‘selection breeding’ and artificial insemination,animal research in order to control spread of diseases transmitted through animals, thus protecting the public from exposure to diseases carried by animals,wildlife conservation,poultry management and health care,livestock insurance and ruraldevelopment.
The vets must be familiar with the many breeds of pets or livestock and the characteristics of each so that they can recommend diets, exercise regiments and treatment, specific to the breed.Interested students after completing 12th standard with science subjects needs to pass entrance examination conducted by the concerned universities. Veterinary Council of India conducts an ‘All India Common Entrance examination’ (AICEE) in the month of may for admission to first year Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) & Animal Husbandry (AH) degree course.ICAR Indian Council for Agricultural Research conducts entrance exam for 2 year post-graduation. the candidate has the option to specialize in areas like medicine, surgery, anatomy, bacteriology, biochemistry, cardiology, dermatology, microbiology, molecular biology, anesthesia, gynecology, pathology, toxicology, virology pharmacology, etc. The duration of the BVSc & AH varies from four and a half years to five years, including the period of internship. Training in livestock production and management at animal farms, in poultry production and management and in livestock products’ technology and other services is also part of the curriculum. The training is of one month each.
Veterinary doctors deal with the treatment, care and handling of domestic pets, livestock, animals in the zoo, laboratory, sporting animals or animals with the government’s animal husbandry departments. The demand for private vets is increasing due to the recent fad of keeping pets and unprecedented growth in the demand of poultry sector and animal products. Wildlife sanctuaries and zoological parks as well as aviaries need veterinarians. Besides regular practice, vets can also take up research work, either on their own or in association with the government such as ICAR (Indian council for Agricultural Research). Pharmaceutical industries appoint veterinary scientists in their research and development divisions for the research and development of drugs, chemicals and bio-products particularly antibiotics and vaccines both for human and animal use. An average vet can earn between Rs.5,000 to Rs.50,000 per month. The government also has job openings in this field, as livestock development officers, and the pay is Rs. 8,000 depending on position and experience.